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More on Oracles and Quantifiers

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Yachin Pnueli
Institut für Informatik
Freie Universität Berlin
email: pnueli@inf.fu-berlin.de
(joint work with Janos A. Makowski)
Report B 94-17
September 1994

Get the report here or by anonymous ftp:
Server: fubinf.inf.fu-berlin.de
File: pub/reports/tr-b-94-17.ps.gz

More on Oracles and Quantifiers
We continue the investigation of \cite{ar:MP94} into the relationship
between classes of oracle using Turing machines and logics
enhanced by Lindstr\"om quantifiers. Let $\cL$ be a logic (FOL or SOL)
and let $\cL[K]$ be the enhancement of that logic with a Lindstr\"om
quantifier for the set of structures $K$. We show that if for some sets of
structures $A,B,C$ we have $\cL[A,C] \subset \cL[B,C]$ then also
$\cL[A] \subset \cL[B]$. This has the complexity theoretic implication that,
using the appropriate oracle computation model, finding an oracle $K$ such
that $\bL^K \subset \bP^K$ constitutes a proof that $\bL \subset \bP$.
Considering the case where $\cL$ is Second Order Logic or fragments of it
we use the results of Meyer and Stockmeyer about the polynomial hierarchy
to show that if $\Sigma_i (\Pi_i)$ is a fragment of $SOL$ capturing level
$\PS{i}$ $(\PP{i})$ in the polynomial hierarchy, then the enhanced fragment
$\Sigma_i[K] (\Pi_i[K])$ (for arbitrary $K$) captures $\PSK{n}{K}$
$(({\Pi^p}_n)^K)$ -
that level relativized to an oracle for the set $K$. As a corollary the
logic $SOL[K]$ captures the polynomial hierarchy relativized to
oracle $K$ and has a prenex normal form where all second order quantifiers
appear outer most.